In modern conditions, crop improvement can be achieved - on the basis of high farming, through scientifically sound, environmentally sound use of fertilizers and pesticides, the widespread introduction of advanced technologies with minimal use of chemicals.
As a result of the consistent implementation of programs chemicals, mechanization and irrigation chemical load on the field and on the other components agrolandscape grew exponentially. Significant increase in the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers in the period from 1960 to 2000.led to a large depletion of natural potential and soil fertility, poor water and air quality, not to mention the decline in the quality of agricultural products.
The twentieth century - a century of fertilizer application. However, at the turn of the century it became clear that, broadly applying chemicals in agriculture,humanity is digging its own grave planetary scale. Presence in food of nitrates, nitrites, pesticides, herbicides, etc. affects the health of the world population and leads to the development of many diseases, especially - allergic nature. Accumulation in soil chemical compounds used in agriculture,causes a sharp deterioration in its fertility, regardless of climates and soil types. A vicious circle: impairment of fertility leads to lower yields and requires making ever larger doses of fertilizers for crop productivity. This leads to an even greater reduction in fertility,forcing again increasing doses of mineral fertilizers. As a result, humankind still worth the problem of ensuring high productivity of crops and protect plants from disease.
Is there an alternative to mineral fertilizers and chemical disinfectants and fungicides seed? Yes, there is.This - organic fertilizers.
Intensive development of biological agriculture requires the creation of new and effective bio-organic fertilizer. Are promising technologies to simultaneously solve several problems: recycling of organic waste, which can be used in fertilizer,increase crop yields and improve the quality of agricultural products, as well as the protection of plants against pests and diseases.
As growth promoters and organo-mineral fertilizers and soil conditioners are widely used Humic - humates. This group of natural macromolecular substances,characterized by a high physiological activity. They are non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic and have no embryological activity. Humates help to increase the ability of organisms to withstand adverse environmental conditions, which leads to increased crop yields.
Tests have shownhumates that have multifaceted effects on plants: activate bioenergetic processes, stimulate metabolism, improve penetration of minerals through the pores, increase adaptive properties.
Analyzing the accumulated knowledge, we can confidently saythat the introduction of environmentally-oriented farming systems using humates provides:
- decrease (25-60%) doses mineral primarily nitrogen, phosphorus and micronutrients;
- increase in yield of major crops and increase quality / agricultural products;
- possibility of eliminating the use of a number of expensive pesticides;
- opportunity to reorient a number of farms to more efficient production of new products, including eco-friendly;
- full use of all types of organic waste management;
- improvement of soil fertility, soil improvement;
- increase in profitability of agricultural enterprises by 30-50%.
Humic substances constitute a specific group of high dark-colored substances formed during the decomposition of organic residues in the soil by synthesizing of the products of disintegration and decay of dead plant and animal tissues, that is in the process of humification. The amount of carbon bound in soil humic acids,peat, coal, almost four times the amount of carbon bound in organic matter of all plants and animals on earth. But humic substances are not just a waste of life processes, they are natural and important product of co-evolution of minerals and fauna of the earth.In recent years, scientists have identified a common biochemical and ecological functions of humic substances and their effects on plant development. Among the most important are the following:
- Accumulative - the ability of humic substances to accumulate long-term stocks of all nutrients, carbohydrates, amino acids in various media;
- Transport -the formation of complex organic-compounds with metals and trace elements that are actively migrating to plants;
- Regulatory - humic substances formed coloring and regulate soil mineral nutrition, cation exchange, buffering and redox processes in the soil;
- Tread -by adsorption of toxic substances, and radionuclides humic substances prevent their delivery to plants.
Combining all these features provides improved yields and with the required quality / agricultural products.It is particularly important to emphasize the positive effects of the action of humic substances under unfavorable conditions of exposure: low and high temperatures, lack of moisture, salinity, and the presence of pesticide accumulation of radionuclides.
Undeniable role of humic substances and as physiologically active substances.They alter the permeability of cell membranes, increase enzyme activity and stimulate respiration processes, the synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates. They increase the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic productivity, which in turn creates the preconditions for production of ecologically clean products.When agricultural land use needs constant replenishment of humus in the soil to maintain the desired concentration of humic substances.
So far, it has mainly replenishment by adding compost, manure and peat. However, since the actual content of humic substances are relatively small,norms that make them very large. This increases the transport and other production costs, which greatly exceed the cost of fertilizers themselves. Furthermore, they contain weed seeds and bacteria (for manure and compost).To obtain high yields and stable enough to hope for biological crop capabilities that are known to be used by only 10-20%. Of course it is necessary to use high-yielding varieties, effective techniques and agro-fitotehniki, fertilizers, but we can not do without plant growth regulators,that by the end of the twentieth century have been playing an equally important role than pesticides and fertilizers.
In connection with the introduction of modern crop technologies intensive cropping problem of developing technologies for production and use of adapted growth regulators is of great importance, especiallyin areas of "high-risk" areas of agriculture and intensive land use year-round, as well as greenhouse farms. It often becomes necessary to stimulate seed germination and increase the potential of resistance of plants to adverse agro-climatic conditions.These circumstances have caused enough active development of the proposals concentrated humic substances.
"Potassium humate" "sodium humate"-what's the difference? Humates are salts of humic acids obtained by leaching. Much difference between potassium humate and sodium humate not. Quality humates (whetherpotassium humate or sodium humate) depends on the quality of raw materials and production process.
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